Achaemenid Dynasty > Darius II

Darius II

Background

Darius II was a king of the Achaemenid Empire between 423 BCE and 405 BCE. The reign of Darius II is wrought with contention and political turmoil. When Artaxerxes I died on December 25th, 424 BCE he was succeeded in rule by his son Xerxes II. After ruling over the Achaemenid Empire for about a month and a half Xerxes II was murdered by his brother named Secydianus or Sogdianus.

Not much is known about the reign of Darius II. It was documented by Xenophon that Media rebelled in 409 BCE .

In regards to Greece, Darius II did not interfere with their affairs as long as Athens was in power.

Darius II died in 405 BCE during the nineteenth year of his reign and was succeeded by Artaxerxes II Mnemnon.

His illegitimate brother, Ochus, satrap of Hyrcania, rebelled against Sogdianus, and after a short fight killed him, and suppressed by treachery the attempt of his own brother Arsites to imitate his example. Ochus adopted the name Darius (Greek sources often call him Darius Nothos, "Bastard"). Neither the names Xerxes II nor Sogdianus occur in the dates of the numerous Babylonian tablets from Nippur; here effectively the reign of Darius II follows immediately after that of Artaxerxes I.[2]

It does seem that Darius II was quite dependent on his wife Parysatis. In excerpts from Ctesias some harem intrigues are recorded, in which he played a disreputable part.[2]When in 413 BC, Athens supported the rebel Amorges in Caria, Darius II would not have responded had not the Athenian power been broken in the same year at Syracuse.As a result of that event, Darius II gave orders to his satraps in Asia Minor, Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, to send in the overdue tribute of the Greek towns and to begin a war with Athens. To support the war with Athens, the Persian satraps entered into an alliance with Sparta. In 408 BC he sent his son Cyrus to Asia Minor, to carry on the war with greater energy. Darius II died in 405 BC, in the nineteenth year of his reign, and was followed as Persian king by Artaxerxes II.[2]Issue[edit]Prior to his accession, Darius II was married to the daughter of Gobryas. With the daughter of Gobryas, Darius II had four sons, through whom one of his sons became the father of Artabazanes, who served as King of Media Atropatene in the second half of the 3rd century BC.[3][4][5]By ParysatisArtaxerxes IICyrus the YoungerOxathres or Oxendares or OxendrasArtoxexesOstanesAmestris wife of Teritouchmes & then Artaxerxes II& seven other unnamed childrenBy other wivesArtostesThe unnamed satrap of Media at 401 B.C.Darius IIThe Great King of PersiaPharaoh of EgyptKing of PersiaReign423–404 BCPredecessorSogdianusSuccessorArtaxerxes IIPharaoh of EgyptReign423–404 BCPredecessorSogdianusSuccessorAmyrtaeusHouseAchaemenidFatherArtaxerxes IMotherCosmartidene of BabylonDarius II (Persian: داريوش دوم‎‎) (Dārayavahuš), was king of the Persian Empire from 423 BC to 404 [1] or 405 BC.[2]Artaxerxes I, who died on December 25, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a half Xerxes II was murdered by his brother Secydianus or Sogdianus (the form of the name is uncertain). His illegitimate brother, Ochus, satrap of Hyrcania, rebelled against Sogdianus, and after a short fight killed him, and suppressed by treachery the attempt of his own brother Arsites to imitate his example. Ochus adopted the name Darius (Greek sources often call him Darius Nothos, "Bastard"). Neither the names Xerxes II nor Sogdianus occur in the dates of the numerous Babylonian tablets from Nippur; here effectively the reign of Darius II follows immediately after that of Artaxerxes I.[1]Prospective tomb of Darius II of Persia in Naqsh-e RustamHistorians know little about Darius II's reign. A rebellion by the Medes in 409 BC is mentioned by Xenophon. It does seem that Darius II was quite dependent on his wife Parysatis. In excerpts from Ctesias some harem intrigues are recorded, in which he played a disreputable part.[1]As long as the power of Athens remained intact he did not meddle in Greek affairs. When in 413 BC, Athens supported the rebel Amorges in Caria, Darius II would not have responded had not the Athenian power been broken in the same year at Syracuse. As a result of that event, Darius II gave orders to his satraps in Asia Minor, Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, to send in the overdue tribute of the Greek towns and to begin a war with Athens. To support the war with Athens, the Persian satraps entered into an alliance with Sparta. In 408 BC he sent his son Cyrus to Asia Minor, to carry on the war with greater energy. Darius II died in 404 BC, in the nineteenth year of his reign, and was followed as Persian king by Artaxerxes II.[1]Issue[edit]Prior to his accession, Darius II was married to the daughter of Gobryas. With the daughter of Gobryas, Darius II had four sons, through whom one of his sons became the father of Artabazanes, who served as King of Media Atropatene in the second half of the 3rd century BC.[3][4][5]By ParysatisArtaxerxes IICyrus the YoungerOxathres or Oxendares or OxendrasArtoxexesOstanesAmestris wife of Teritouchmes & then Artaxerxes II& seven other unnamed childrenBy other wivesArtostesThe unnamed satrap of Media at 401 B.C.See also[edit]ArtoxaresReferences[edit]^ Jump up to: a b c d Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Meyer, Eduard (1911). "Darius". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 833.Jump up ^ Brill's New Pauly, "Darius".Jump up ^ ARTABAZANES, Encyclopedia IranicaJump up ^ García Sánchez, M (2005): "La figura del sucesor del Gran Rey en la Persia Aqueménida", in V. Troncoso (ed.), Anejos Gerión 9, La figura del sucesor en las monarquías de época helenística.Jump up ^ Hallock, R (1985): "The evidence of the Persepolis Tablets", en Gershevitch (ed.) The Cambridge History of Iran v. 2, p. 591.Darius IIAchaemenid dynastyBorn: ?? Died: 404 BCPreceded bySogdianusThe Great King of Persia423 BC – 404 BCSucceeded byArtaxerxes IIPharaoh of Egypt423–404Succeeded byAmyrtaeus

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