Satraps of Persis > Ariobarzanes of Persis
Ariobarzanes of Persis
Ariobarzanes of PersiaBorn368 BCPersepolisDiedJanuary 20, 330 BCPersian GatesParent(s)ArtabazusPart of a series on theHistory of IranPersepolis 24.11.2009 11-12-14.jpgMythological history[show]Ancient period[show]Imperial period[show]Medieval period[show]Early modern period[show]Modern period[show]Related articles[show] Iran portalv t eAriobarzanes (in Ancient Greek: Ἀριοβαρζάνης, in Persian: آریو برزن; also spelled as Ario Barzan or Aryo Barzan (meaning "exalting the Aryans"); died 330 BC), also known as Ariobarzanes the Brave was a Persian satrap and military commander who led a last stand of the Persian army at the Battle of the Persian Gate against Macedonian King Alexander the Great in the winter of 330 BC.Contents [hide]1Family2Life3Death4See also5Notes6References7External linksFamilySatrap or Satrapes, derived from Old Persian xsatrapa, means the Protector of the Land, and it was the name given to the provincial governors in the ancient Achaemenid Empire. Darius I or Darius the Great (522-486 BC) established 20 satraps with an annual tribute. Appointed by the king, satraps were usually of the royal family or Iranian nobility and held office indefinitely. They collected taxes, were the highest judicial authority, and were responsible for internal security and for raising and maintaining an army. A satrap was assisted by a council of Iranian noblemen, to which also provincials were admitted; and was controlled by a royal secretary and by emissaries of the king, especially the Eyes of the King. After the fall of Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great and his successors retained the satraps.LifeThough the exact birth-date of Ariobarzanes is unknown, it is speculated that he was born around 368 BC. His sister was the ancient Persian noblewoman and warrior, Youtab. Ariobarzanes was made satrap of Persis (the southern province of Fars in present-day Iran) in 335 BC by Darius III. Historians are surprised that Darius III Codomannus had appointed a satrap for Persepolis and Persis. It seems that previously, this office did not exist. Ariobarzanes commanded part of the Persian Army fighting against the Macedonians at Gaugamela in 331 BC.DeathFollowing the Persian defeat at Gaugamela, Darius III realized he could not defend his capital Persepolis and travelled east to rebuild his armies, leaving Ariobarzanes in command. Meanwhile, Alexander the Great split his army and led his 14,000 strong force towards the Persian capital via the Persian Gates. There Ariobarzanes successfully ambushed Alexander the Great's army, inflicting heavy casualties. The Persian success at the Battle of the Persian Gate was short lived though; after being held off for 30 days, Alexander the Great outflanked and destroyed the defenders. Ariobarzanes himself was killed either during the battle or during the retreat to Persepolis. Some sources indicate that the Persian were betrayed by a captured tribal chief who showed the Macedonians an alternate path that allowed them to outflank Ariobarzanes in a reversal of Thermopylae.See alsoBattle of the Persian GateNotesJump up ^ Shahbazi, A. Sh. "ARIOBARZANES". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-03-05.ReferencesAriobarzanes of Persis by Nabil RastaniExternal linksAriobarzanes: An Article by Jona Lendering.Pharnabazus, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2006.King Darius III: A Research Article on Darius-III CodomannusGabae: The name of two places in Persia and Sogdiana.Persian Gates: Photos of the battlefield.