Warfare > Cadusian Campaign of Artaxerxes II

Cadusian Campaign of Artaxerxes II

Background

The Cadusian Campaign of Artaxerxes II was a military expedition undertaken by the Achaemenid Persian king Artaxerxes II Mnemon in the late 5th century BCE. This campaign aimed to subdue the Cadusians, a people inhabiting the mountainous region of Cadusia (modern-day northern Iran). Artaxerxes II reigned as the king of the Achaemenid Persian Empire from 404 BCE to 358 BCE. The Cadusians were a fierce and independent people who inhabited the mountainous territory of Cadusia, situated in the northern part of the empire.

Objectives:

The primary objective of Artaxerxes II's campaign was to assert Persian authority over the Cadusians and bring them under imperial control. The Cadusians were known for their martial prowess and resistance to external rule, posing a challenge to Persian hegemony in the region.

Military Campaign:

Artaxerxes II led a large Persian army into the rugged terrain of Cadusia, navigating through mountain passes and challenging landscapes. The campaign likely involved a combination of military tactics, including conventional warfare, siege operations, and possibly diplomacy or subterfuge to undermine Cadusian resistance. The exact details of the campaign, including specific battles and engagements, are not well-documented in historical sources, and much of what is known comes from brief references in ancient texts.

Outcome:

Artaxerxes II's campaign against the Cadusians was ultimately successful, as the Persian king was able to subdue the Cadusian resistance and bring the region under Persian control. The campaign likely resulted in the imposition of Persian administration, taxation, and tribute collection in Cadusia, thereby integrating the region into the broader Persian Empire.

Legacy:

The Cadusian Campaign of Artaxerxes II contributed to the consolidation and expansion of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, extending Persian influence into the mountainous regions of northern Iran. While the campaign itself may not be as well-documented or celebrated as other military expeditions of the Achaemenid period, it nonetheless played a significant role in the maintenance of Persian imperial power and control over the diverse territories of the empire. In summary, the Cadusian Campaign of Artaxerxes II was a military expedition aimed at subduing the Cadusian people and bringing their mountainous territory under Persian control. While specific details of the campaign are limited, its success contributed to the consolidation and expansion of the Achaemenid Persian Empire in the late 5th century BCE.

Sources

Strabo, Geography, xi. 6, 7, 8, 13

Plutarch, Parallel Lives, "Artaxerxes", 24

Rollin 1820, p. 58-59

RĂ¼diger Schmitt, "Cadusii" in Encyclopedia Iranica

Rollin, Charles (1820). The ancient history of the Egyptians, Carthagininas, Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes and Persians, Macedonians, and Grecians. 4. Collins and co.

Persian Warfare

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