Warfare > Battle of Marathon

Battle of Marathon


The Battle of Marathon, fought in 490 BCE, was a pivotal conflict during the Greco-Persian Wars, where the Athenians, alongside their Plataean allies, achieved a remarkable victory over the invading Persian army. The Greco-Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek city-states and the Achaemenid Persian Empire, sparked by Persian attempts to expand into the Greek mainland. In 490 BCE, King Darius I of Persia sought to punish Athens and Eretria for supporting a revolt in the Ionian Greek cities under Persian rule. He dispatched a large expeditionary force to conquer these cities and assert Persian dominance over Greece.

Key Players:

Persians: The Persian army, under the command of Datis and Artaphernes, consisted of a formidable force composed of infantry, cavalry, and archers. It was intended to crush any resistance encountered on the Greek mainland.

Athenians: The Athenian army, led by ten generals including Miltiades, Callimachus, and Aristides, represented a coalition of citizen-soldiers drawn from the Athenian hoplite class.

Plataeans: A contingent of heavily armored hoplites from the city-state of Plataea, allies of Athens, also participated in the battle, bolstering the Greek forces.

Course of the Battle:

The Battle of Marathon took place on the plain of Marathon, northeast of Athens, where the Persians had landed their forces. Despite being significantly outnumbered, the Athenian generals, led by Miltiades, devised a bold and innovative strategy to confront the Persians. The Greek army, consisting mainly of hoplites armed with spears and shields, deployed in a phalanx formation, with their flanks protected by rugged terrain. Sensing an opportunity, Miltiades ordered a decisive charge against the weakened center of the Persian line, where their forces were thinner. The Greek hoplites, driven by the urgency to protect their city-state and their families, surged forward with unparalleled ferocity, breaking through the Persian ranks. In the ensuing melee, the Greeks overwhelmed the Persians, inflicting heavy casualties and driving them back towards their ships. The Persians, caught off guard by the suddenness and intensity of the Greek assault, were unable to mount an effective defense and suffered a crushing defeat.


The Battle of Marathon resulted in a resounding victory for the Athenians and their allies, marking a turning point in the Greco-Persian Wars. The Persian expeditionary force, having suffered significant losses, was forced to abandon its campaign and retreat to their ships, abandoning their plans to conquer Athens. The Athenians, emboldened by their triumph, pursued the retreating Persians, launching a daring attack on their ships and inflicting further casualties. The Battle of Marathon cemented Athens' reputation as a formidable military power and inspired future generations of Greeks with tales of heroism and valor.


The Battle of Marathon is celebrated as one of the greatest military victories in ancient Greek history, symbolizing the triumph of courage, discipline, and strategic acumen over overwhelming odds. The Marathon run, a legendary feat attributed to the Athenian soldier Pheidippides, who ran from Marathon to Athens to deliver news of the victory, became an enduring symbol of endurance and perseverance. The Battle of Marathon instilled a sense of national pride and unity among the Greek city-states, laying the foundation for the emergence of Athens as a dominant political and cultural force in the ancient world. In summary, the Battle of Marathon stands as a testament to the resilience and determination of the Greek city-states in the face of Persian aggression, securing a decisive victory that shaped the course of history and left an indelible mark on the legacy of ancient Greece.

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