Persian Empire > Tibareni



The Tibareni (Georgian: ტიბერია, Tiberia. Greek Τιβαρηνοί, Tibarenoi; Tubal, Thobeles in Josephus) were a people referred to in Herodotus, Xenophon, Strabo and other classical authors. These three tribes still neighbored each other, along the Black Sea coast of Anatolia (ancient Pontus), as late as in Roman times. Tibareni, along with the other Proto-Georgian tribes were subjugated by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th-5th centuries BC and were incorporated into the XIX Satrapy. They are often identified with Tabal, a Neo-Hittite kingdom of South Central Anatolia which formed during the early Iron Age. They could have relations with pre-Sumerian mesopotamian city of Bad-Tibira, known as "Fortress of the Smiths" as Tibareni are one of the Kartvelian tribes which were early metalsmiths.

The Tibareni were an ancient people who inhabited the region known as Tibarenia (also spelled Tibarene or Tibarania), located in the northeastern part of Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). Tibarenia was situated along the southern coast of the Black Sea, in what is now the eastern part of Turkey. It bordered other regions inhabited by various ethnic groups, including the Pontic Greeks to the west and the Colchians to the east. The ethnic origin of the Tibareni is not entirely clear. They were likely indigenous to the region, but their precise ethnic and linguistic affiliations are not well-documented. They may have been related to other peoples of the Caucasus or Anatolia.

Role within the Persian Empire:

Satrapy: Tibarenia was incorporated into the Achaemenid Persian Empire as a satrapy (province). It was governed by a satrap (provincial governor) appointed by the Persian king to oversee administration, taxation, and defense in the region.

Military Service: Like other subject peoples of the Persian Empire, the Tibareni would have been expected to provide military support to the empire. They may have served in the Persian army during military campaigns or as garrison troops in strategic locations.

Economic Activities:

Agriculture and Trade: Tibarenia's fertile coastal plains and access to the Black Sea would have supported agriculture, including the cultivation of grains, fruits, and olives. The region likely engaged in maritime trade, exporting agricultural products and other goods to other parts of the Persian Empire.

Natural Resources: Tibarenia may have been rich in natural resources such as timber, metals, and minerals, which would have contributed to its economic importance within the empire.

Cultural and Religious Practices:

Religion: The religious beliefs of the Tibareni are not extensively documented, but they likely adhered to local or indigenous religious traditions. With the spread of the Persian Empire's influence, they may have also been exposed to Zoroastrianism, the official religion of the empire.

Cultural Exchange: Tibarenia's location along trade routes and its proximity to other cultures would have facilitated cultural exchange and interaction with neighboring peoples, including Greeks, Colchians, and Persians. This exchange would have influenced Tibareni art, architecture, and customs.


Historical Footprint: While specific details about the Tibareni are limited, their inclusion within the Persian Empire reflects the empire's vast territorial extent and its incorporation of diverse ethnic groups.

Archaeological Interest: The archaeological remains of Tibarenia and other regions of Anatolia continue to be of interest to scholars and archaeologists studying the history, culture, and interactions of ancient peoples in the region.

In summary, the Tibareni were an ancient people who inhabited the region of Tibarenia in northeastern Anatolia. As part of the Persian Empire, they played a role in the empire's economic, military, and cultural life, contributing to its rich tapestry of ethnic diversity and regional influence.


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